Invertebrate Zoology Ciliophora


The phylum Ciliophora includes some of the most complex protozoa.  Ciliates are widely distributed in freshwater and marine environments.  A few ciliates are symbiotic.


Phylum Ciliophora 

1.     Cilia for locomotion and for the generation of feeding currents in water

2.      Reproduction both sexual (conjugation) and asexual (binary fission)

3.      Relatively rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape

4.      Distinct cytostome (mouth) structure

5.      Dimorphic nuclei, typically a larger macronucleus and one or more smaller micronuclei


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